Rennukat: Nouns, Adjectives, & Pronouns

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Nouns & Adjectives

Nouns are marked for six cases and two numbers. Adjectives precede nouns, and must agree in case and number.

Rennukat has fewer locative cases than a few of my other conlangs. I didn’t want it to have too many, since that would make it a little too similar to Finnish.

Case

Singular Plural

Nominative

-(i)t

Accusative

-(i)cha -(i)chat

Genitive

-o

-ot

Dative -(i)lla

-(i)llat

Ablative -(i)hty

-(i)htyt

Allative -(i)nne

-(i)nnet

Pronouns

Rennukat has a lot of pronouns. There are five 1st-person pronouns, three 2nd-person pronouns, and three 3rd-person pronouns. I didn’t want to put gender on the 3rd-person pronouns, so decided that some of the 1st-person pronouns would be gendered instead – much like what Japanese does.

All pronouns have rather irregular declensions when compared to other nouns.

1st-Person Pronouns

There are two sets of 1st-person pronouns: casual and formal. Casual pronouns are used in casual and informal settings, and formal pronouns are used in formal settings and by professionals such as teachers, civil servants, & people in the military.

The most commonly used casual pronouns are the gendered ones. The plural forms of gendered pronouns mean “we men”, “we women”, “we agender people” rather than referring to a group that one is part of – the general casual plural is used for that.

The male casual pronoun is ohu, which is a contraction of de bohku “this man”. It is often shortened even further into o’u /oʊ/ in the nominative.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

ohu ohut

Accusative

ocha ochat

Genitive

oho

ohot

Dative olla

ollat

Ablative ohty

ohtyt

Allative onne

onnet

The female casual pronoun is ein, a contraction of de eillin or d’eillin “this woman”. An earlier form was d’ein.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

ein einit

Accusative

eicha eichat
Genitive eino

einot

Dative eilla

eillat

Ablative

eihty

eihtyt

Allative einne

einnet

The agender casual pronoun is dyrru, which is a contraction of de kyrru “this agender person”.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

dyrru dyrrut

Accusative

dycha dychat

Genitive

dyrro

dyrrot

Dative dylla

dyllat

Ablative dyhty

dyhtyt

Allative dynne

dynnet

The general casual pronoun is minno. It is less informal than the gendered pronouns, but less formal than the 1st-person formal pronoun.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

minno minnot

Accusative

minnocha minnochat

Genitive

minnou

minnout

Dative minnolla

minnollat

Ablative minnohty

minnohtyt

Allative minne

minnet

The one formal 1st-person pronoun is arre.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

arre arret

Accusative

arrecha arrechat

Genitive

arro

arrot

Dative arrella

arrellat

Ablative arrehty

arrehtyt

Allative arrenne

arrennet

Minno and arre are the original 1st-person pronouns. The gendered ones came later.

2nd-Person Pronouns

There are three distinct 2nd-person pronouns: informal/subordinate, formal/superior, and general/peer.

The informal/subordinate pronoun is used when addressing subordinates and people younger than the speaker. It is used by teachers speaking to their students, professionals speaking to their clients, parents speaking to their children, people in the military speaking to civilians, and the Avatar when addressing anyone.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

jassu jassut

Accusative

jacha jachat

Genitive

jasso

jassot

Dative jalla

jallat

Ablative jahty

jahty

Allative janne

jannet

The formal pronoun is used when addressing superiors and people older than the speaker. It is used by students addressing teachers, people speaking to hired professionals (doctors, lawyers, plumbers, etc), children speaking to their parents, civilians speaking to people in the military, and anyone speaking to the Avatar.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

fynne fynnet

Accusative

fycha fychat

Genitive

fynno

fynnot

Dative fylla

fyllat

Ablative fyhty

fyhtyt

Allative fynne

fynnet

The general/peer pronoun is used when addressing people equal in status or age to the speaker. It is used among friends, siblings, people in relationships, and civil servants speaking to civilians & vice versa.

 

Singular Plural

Nominative

kevai kevait

Accusative

kaicha kaichat

Genitive

kevo

kevot

Dative kailla

kaillat

Ablative kaihty

kaihtyt

Allative kainne

kainnet

3rd-Person Pronouns

Third person “pronouns” consist of a demonstrative followed by the ollin “person”. It is possible to use gendered words such as bohku, eillin, and kyrru, but the use is discouraged as it is considered rude. The contracted forms of the demonstratives de, no, and tau, (d’, n’, and t’) are used unless the speaker wants to be exceptionally formal.

D’ollin, meaning “this person, close to me”, is used when the speaker is talking about a person close to them.

N’ollin, meaning “that person, close to you”, is used when the speaker is talking about a person close by to the person they are speaking to.

T’ollin, meaning “yonder person, far away from both of us”, is used when the speaker is talking about a person that is far away from everyone involved in the conversation.

Demonstratives

Rennukat has three demonstratives: a proximal, medial, and distal.

 

Demonstrative Meaning

Proximal

de This
Medial no

That

Distal tau

Yonder


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